Ultrasound investigation of prostate and seminal vesicles

Diagnostics of male diseases (prostatitis, adenoma, impaired potency and infertility, perineum pain) widely applies ultrasound investigation of prostate and seminal vesicles.

If you found any of the symptoms below, you must do USI of your prostate:

  • more frequent urination and other difficulties during urination;
  • weak urine stream;
  • the feeling of incompletely empty bladder;
  • impaired potency;
  • a doctor revealed induration or enlargement of your prostate during rectal examination.

Prostate and seminal vesicles are the organs of male reproductive system. Prostate is located under the bladder, and seminal vesicles are behind the prostate. Seminal vesicles excrete the major part of seminal fluid, and prostate excretes secretion being a component of seminal fluid, which makes spermatozoids moving and active.

Inflammation of seminal vesicles (vesiculitis) adversely affects the quality of sperm, which leads to the male infertility.

Ultrasound investigation of prostate and seminal vesicles may be carried out in two ways:

  • transabdominally (via the skin of abdominal wall). This an orientative method as it does not give the complete picture like transrectal USI;
  • transrectally (via the rectum). This method allows for thorough study of the prostate structure. Discomfort is minimal during the procedure, as a small probe (1.5-2 cm) is used for investigation.

USI of prostate assesses the structure and dimensions, density and homogeneity, as well as presence of any neoplasms. Normal prostate is sized 3х3х5 cm, and the volume is 25 ml.

The following diseases may be detected in males with USI of prostate:

  • Prostate adenoma or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

The disease is characterized with prostate enlargement and appearance of individual adenomatous nodes in the gland tissue, which later leads to urination disorders. It is very common in males aged over 60. If adenoma is diagnosed at early stages, it may be treated.

  • Frequent urination giving the sensation of incompletely empty bladder, weak urine stream and, at later stages, urinary retention are the main symptoms of prostate adenoma.

Prostate cancer

This malignant neoplasm in prostate which is mostly diagnosed in males aged over 60. The danger of this disease is its symptomless progression, and the patients often learn about it at the late stages. If malignant neoplasms are timely detected, they may be treated. Therefore, males aged over 50 should do USI of prostate on an annual basis.

Prostatitis is the prostate inflammation which causes discomfort during urination and ejaculation. In case of prostatitis, frequent urination and sexual function disorders are reported. During ultrasound investigation of prostatitis, enlargement of prostate is visualized.

Prostate cyst mostly develops as a result of chronic prostatitis and is a small liquid-filled cavity in the prostate. The cyst location and sizes are easily determined with USI.

Preparation to USI of prostate and seminal vesicles.

For transrectal USI of prostate, no special preparation is required.

For transabdominal USI, it is recommended to fill the bladder by drinking 1-1.5 l of water 2 hours before the investigation.