Ultrasound investigation of scrotum organs
Ultrasound investigation of scrotum organs (testicles) is prescribed in case of suspected inflammatory processes or tumors of testicles or epididimes (orchitis, epididymitis), abnormalities of testicles or scrotum injuries. Moreover, it enables a sonographer to assess the size of testicles (normal size for an adult male is 3х4 cm) and epididimes, the structure of tissues and to detect any neoplasms.
This investigation is prescribed to children in order to detect any abnormalities of testicles (monorchism, cryptorchism).
Diseases diagnosed with scrotal USI
1. Inflammatory processes in scrotum organs are caused with urethra infection. They include: orchitis (testicle inflammation), epididymitis (epididime inflammation) and orchiepididymitis (testicle and epididime inflammation).
The signs of inflammatory processes in scrotum organs are: induration, high tenderness and redness of skin, rise of body temperature.
Scrotal USI clearly identifies inflammatory processes, as the increase of testicle and epididime may be clearly seen, as well as the edema of testicle coats.
2. Tumors of scrotum organs (seminoma is a malignant tumor of a testicle, chorionepithelioma etc.) give no symptoms for a long time. The major sign of testicle tumor is a well-palpated induration around the testicle. Scrotal USI detects the tumor localization and its sizes, structure, density and the degree of lesions in the local (regional) lymphatic nodes.
3. Varicocele (abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus) is the diseases leading to venous blood congestion in scrotum. It is characterized with enlargement and induration of the right or left half of scrotum, and sometimes it is a sign of testicle tumor.
In case of varicocele, scrotal USI clearly shows induration and edema of testicle coats. Sometimes Doppler sonography is applied in such cases, which is a special method of ultrasound diagnostics allowing to determine the direction and velocity of blood flow in the vessels.
4. Testicle abnormalities are most often diagnosed in infant age. Special attention should be paid to cryptorchism, i.e. arrested prenatal development of the testicle in the abdominal cavity. It is mostly reported in preterm infants and, as a rule, a testicle drops into scrotum independently later on.
Preparation to scrotal USI
No special preparation is required for scrotal USI.